Cyberwarfare is a computer- or network-based conflict involving politically motivated attacks by a nation-state on another nation-state. In these types of attacks, nation-state actors attempt to disrupt the activities of organizations or nation-states, especially for strategic or military purposes and cyberespionage.
Cyberwarfare can take many forms, including:
Viruses, computer worms, and malware that can take down water supplies, transportation systems, power grids, critical infrastructure, and military systems;
Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, cybersecurity events that occur when attackers take action that prevents legitimate users from accessing targeted computer systems, devices, or other network resources;
Hacking and theft of critical data from institutions, governments, and businesses; and
Ransomware that holds computer systems hostage until the victims pay the ransom.